We stand with Ukraine! Ray-Tracing a Polygon Mesh
Keywords: ray-tracing, polygon mesh, tessellation, triangulation, triangle, barycentric coordinates, interpolation, normals, vertex attribute, texture coordinates.Want to report bugs, errors or send feedback? Write at feedback@scratchapixel.com. We do this for free, please be kind. Thank you.

## Introduction

We learned how to render triangles in the previous lesson which leads us to the next step: rendering more complex objects. Usually the simplest form of object we can find right after simple primitives such as spheres and triangles, are polygonal objects (which are also called polygon meshes).

Polygon meshes are not used much in film (where a more sophisticated type of primitive, the subdivision surface is preferred) but they stay very popular in games and real time applications in general. These objects are made out of polygons which we also call faces. A polygon or a face is a flat surface (it should be but if the vertices making up the face are not coplanar it won't be) which is defined by a set of vertices connected to each other to form a closed shape. Two vertices connected to each other form an edge. Therefore, the number of vertices making up a face has to be greater or equal to three. Three vertices define a triangle, and four define a quad. We can also combine polygons together to create complex polyhedral objects.

Polygon meshes are simple in principle but have they own set of problems: for instance how do we smooth a low poly mesh (a mesh that has a small number of polygons may appear blocky), or how do we efficiently encode the vertex connectivity data of a mesh? These techniques will be studied in the advanced section. The goal of this basic lesson is to learn how to define a polygon mesh in our program (chapter 2) and render this mesh using ray tracing (chapter 3).

## Mesh Definition Figure 1: a simple mesh with 2 faces and 6 vertices.

A polygon mesh is made out of vertices which are connected to each other to form faces. The first thing we expect to define a mesh is therefore a list of vertices. Let's consider an example of two quads sharing a common edge (figure 1). In this example we would have 6 vertices v0, v1, v2, v3, v4 and v5. The other information we need is the total number of faces the mesh contains. In our example this number is 2. We also need an array of integers which indicates how many vertices each face is made of (the face index array). The first and the second face from our mesh have 4 vertices therefore this array would contain the following data: [4 4]. The size of this array is equal to the number of faces in the mesh (2). Finally for each face, we need to know how the vertices are connected to other to create the faces, their indexes in the vertex array list, and the order in which they should be connected. The vertices v0, v1, v2 and v3 are making up the first face, while connecting vertices v0, v3, v4 and v5 in this order gives the second face. We can store this information in the form of an array of integer values which size if equal to the sum of the number of vertices each face is made of. The mesh contains 2 faces which are each connected to 4 vertices, therefore this array should be of size 8 and would contain the following data: [0 1 2 3 0 3 4 5]. Here is what we would get in pseudocode:

// mesh vertices Vec3f P = {Vec3f (-5, -5, 5), Vec3f ( 5, -5, 5), Vec3f ( 5, -5, -5), Vec3f (-5, -5, -5), Vec3f (-5, 5, -5), Vec3f (-5, 5, 5)}; uint32_t npolys = 2; // number of faces uint32 faceIndex = {4, 4}; // face index array uint32 vertexIndex = {0, 1, 2, 3, 0, 3, 4, 5}; // vertex index array
Remember that if the current orientation is left-handed, then a polygon whose vertices are specified in clockwise order (from the point of view of the camera) will be a front-facing polygon (that is, will have a normal vector which points toward the camera). If the current orientation is right-handed, then polygons whose vertices were specified in counterclockwise order will be front-facing.

Names of the variables in the pseudocode follow the conventions defined in the RenderMan Interface Specification for the RiPointsPolygons method. The RenderMan Interface "is a standard interface between modeling programs and rendering programs capable of producing photorealistic quality images" proposed and maintained by Pixar. This document can easily be found on the web and reading it is recommended as it contains a great deal of very interesting and useful information (even though Pixar doesn't maintain it anymore).

class PolygonMesh : public Object { public: PolygonMesh(uint32_t nfaces, int *fi, int *vi, Vec3f *p) : numFaces(nf), faceIndex(NULL), vertexIndex(NULL), P(NULL) { // compute vertArraySize and maxVertexIndex uint32_t vertArraySize = 0; uint32_t maxVertexIndex = 0, index = 0; for (uint32_t i = 0; i < numFaces; ++i) { vertArraySize += nv[i]; for (uint32_t j = 0; j < fi[i]; ++j) if (vi[index + j] > maxVertexIndex) maxVertexIndex = vi[index + j]; index += fi[i]; } maxVertexIndex += 1; pts = std::unique_ptr<Vec3f []>(new point[maxVertexIndex]); for (uint32_t i = 0; i < maxVertexIndex; ++i) P[i] = p[i]; vertexIndex = std::unique_ptr<uint32_t []>(new int[maxVertexIndex]); for (uint32_t i = 0; i < maxVertexIndex; ++i) vertexIndex [i] = vi[i]; faceIndex = std::unique_ptr<uint32_t>(new int[numFaces]); for (uint32_t i = 0; i < numFaces; ++i) faceIndex[i] = fi[i]; }; ~PolygonMesh() { /* release memory */ ... } bool intersect(...) const { ... } void getSurfaceData(...) const { ... } uint32_t numFaces; // number of faces std::unique_ptr<uint32_t []> faceIndex; // face index std::unique_ptr<uint32_t []> vertexIndex; // vertex index std::unique_ptr<Vec3f []> P; }; int main(...) { ... uint32_t numFaces = 2; uint32_t faceIndex = {4, 4}; uint32_t vertexIndex = {0, 1, 2, 3, 0, 3, 4, 5}; Vec3f P = { Vec3f (-5, -5, 5), Vec3f ( 5, -5, 5), Vec3f ( 5, -5, -5), Vec3f (-5, -5, -5), Vec3f (-5, 5, -5), Vec3f (-5, 5, 5), }; PolygonMesh *mesh = new PolygonMesh(numFaces, faceIndex, vertexIndex, P); ... }

The code is quite simple (a functional C++ version of this code is available in the last chapter of this lesson). The point list, face and vertex index array are passed to the constructor of the MeshPolygon class as well as the number of faces. However we don't know how many points are in the point array. To find out, we look for the vertex with the maximum index value in the vertex index array (lines 13-14). The first element of an array in C++ start at 0, therefore the total number of vertices in the point list is the maximum index value plus 1 (line 17).

As you can see in the code above, we added the two methods intersect() and getSurfaceData() but we left them empty for now. We will fill them in the next chapter.

## Convert Polygons to Triangles Figure 2: example of a convex (left) and concave (right) polygon.

Unfortunately it is not easy to directly ray-trace a polygon mesh. For the sake of simplicity and generality it is usually much better to convert the polygon mesh into a triangle mesh and ray-trace each individual triangle rather than developing an algorithm to ray trace polygons. This partially explains why we put so much effort into ray-tracing triangles efficiently (as explained in the previous lesson). It is much easier to have one efficient highly optimized ray-primitive intersection and convert every type of geometry to this primitive rather than implementing an efficient ray-geometry intersection routine every time a new type of geometry is added to the system. In addition, converting polygons to triangles is actually really simple. However our technique will only works for convex polygons. Concave polygons require a different method which we won't look at in this lesson. The technique we will use for this lesson is simple to understand and implement but other methods can be used to produce a better result (there is a lot of research on the topic of meshing) as we already mentioned it only works for convex polygons. If you are unsure about whether or not your mesh contains concave polygons, the best is to triangulate it first in a program such as Maya before exporting it to the renderer. Figure 3: triangulating a convex face.

Triangulating a convex polygon is very simple. We simply take the first vertex in the face, and draw triangles by connecting the vertices v, v[n + 1] and v[n + 2] to create a triangle, where $n$ is the current number of triangles formed minus one. When $n = 0$, the first triangle is formed by the vertices v v and v, when $n = 1$ the second triangle is formed by the vertices v, v and v, and for $n = 2$, the third triangle is formed by v, v, v, and so on. Figure 3 illustrates this process. The number of triangles created for a polygon is always equal to the number of vertices in the polygon minus two (create some polygons yourself to verify this observation).

numTrisInFace = numVertsInFace - 2;

Our program will need to triangulate the original mesh before it gets rendered, which practically means that we don't want to store the original face and vertex index arrays. We will create new ones from the data passed to the mesh constructor class. We first want to compute how many triangles the original mesh will generate (which we can easily do since we know that each face containing $N$ vertices results in $N - 2$ triangles). We also know that each face of a triangulated mesh contains three vertices therefore we don't need to store the face index array for triangulated mesh. However we will need to regenerate ourselves a vertex index array to store which vertices each triangle in the mesh is connected to. The size of this array is equal to the number of triangles multiplied by 3. The pseudocode should make this process easier to understand:

TriangleMesh( const uint32_t nfaces, const std::unique_ptr<uint32_t []> &faceIndex, const std::unique_ptr<uint32_t []> &vertsIndex, const std::unique_ptr<Vec3f []> &verts, const std::unique_ptr<Vec3f []> &normals = nullptr, const std::unique_ptr<Vec2f []> &st = nullptr) : numTris(0) { uint32_t k = 0, maxVertIndex = 0; // find out how many triangles we need to create for this mesh for (uint32_t i = 0; i < nfaces; ++i) { numTris += faceIndex[i] - 2; for (uint32_t j = 0; j < faceIndex[i]; ++j) if (vertsIndex[k + j] > maxVertIndex) maxVertIndex = vertsIndex[k + j]; k += faceIndex[i]; } maxVertIndex += 1; // allocate memory to store the position of the mesh vertices P = std::unique_ptr<Vec3f []>(new Vec3f[maxVertIndex]); for (uint32_t i = 0; i < maxVertIndex; ++i) { P[i] = verts[i]; } // allocate memory to store triangle indices trisIndex = std::unique_ptr<uint32_t []>(new uint32_t [numTris * 3]); uint32_t l = 0; // generate the triangle index array for (uint32_t i = 0, k = 0; i < nfaces; ++i) { // for each face for (uint32_t j = 0; j < faceIndex[i] - 2; ++j) { // for each triangle in the face trisIndex[l] = vertsIndex[k]; trisIndex[l + 1] = vertsIndex[k + j + 1]; trisIndex[l + 2] = vertsIndex[k + j + 2]; l += 3; } k += faceIndex[i]; } // store normals and st coordinates ... }

The computation of the triangle vertex indexes is straightforward. We create an array which size is equal to the number of triangles multiplied by 3 (since each triangle requires three indexes into the point array - line xx). We loop over each face then over each triangle in this face and compute the indexes for the current triangle from the input vertex index array which we store in the triangle vertex index array (line xx to xx). At this stage we have a renderable polygon mesh in the form of a triangulated polygon mesh.

## Normals Figure 4: face normals (left) and vertex normals (right). Face normal are used for flat shading and vertex normals are used to fake smooth shading.

The normal of a triangle can be computed from the cross product of vectors AB and AC (figure 4). This normal is called a face normal, because it corresponds to a vector perpendicular to the plane defined by the three vertices of the triangle. Therefore the normal vector is also perpendicular to the face (or triangle in that case. Remember than polygons should be coplanar) hence the term face normal. However we can also compute what is called a vertex normal which as its name suggests, is a normal defined at the position of each vertex in the mesh. This normal is useful for smooth shading (as shown in figure 4) and is usually computed from an average of all the face normals the vertex is connected to. Vertex normals are required for shading and they are usually computed by the modeling program and passed on to the renderer as part of the mesh description. When they are not defined, the renderer needs to compute them itself. Computing vertex normals will be addressed in a future lesson. For now we will assume that they are always defined in the object geometry file.

## Texture Coordinates

Unless the geometry is generated on the fly in the program, st coordinates are generally generated in the modeling program and exported to the file in which the object is stored. Similarly to normals, we will expect texture coordinates to be defined in the object geometry file.

## What's Next?

In this chapter we have explained what information we needed to store and compute polygon meshes. In the next chapter we will explain how these meshes can be ray traced and provide a functional C++ example.